21 March 2010

Horror of Time Accounting

The Passage of TimeRecently Uncle Bob mentioned that there is so much time wasted by developers on "fiddling around with time accounting tools". That's so true. During my 11 years of professional software development I had the opportunity to witness different approaches used by companies. I understand the need to monitor and control spent times but I hate wasting my own time on time accounting stuff. So I always try to minimise the time needed by automating the process of filling in the forms (if possible). Remember Terence John Parr's quote: "Why program by hand in five days what you can spend five years of your life automating?" :-)

Spread Yourself
Of course, if you have to track times of your tasks, you have to write them down. If you work on different tasks during the day then spreadsheets work best for that, especially if you spend some time automating them further. For example you may use VBA to write some Excel Macros. (Or even use some Ruby OLE magic.) Early in my career I was lucky to meet Andreas, who provided me with his detailed Excel sheet.

Since then I have been using it. It's just great. The most useful feature is adding a new line with one key shortcut (CTRL-T). The new line is filled with the current date and the current (rounded) time or the ending time of the last task. This makes entering new lines extremely fast: CTRL-T, fill project and subproject number, add description. Andreas' sheet worked so well for everybody that it became the official time accounting tool for all employees later. (Thank you Andreas for your great spreadsheet!)Todo Macro SheetAnother company I worked with did not have any kind of time accounting. That was nice for a change, but I did not believe in it and kept using my macro infested Excel sheet. Later, when they started using their own tool based on Oracle Forms, I wrote a little application that imported the lines from my sheet into the database. It was quite simple (less than 100 lines) to read a CSV, do some translations and insert the data into a database. Unfortunately companies usually do not allow employees to write directly into their time accounting database (for obvious reasons).

Timed Overkill
Last year, while working for a big bank, I experienced the overkill of time accounting. There were three different systems. Project management used XPlanner to track task progress. XPlanner is a web application. I could have "remote controlled" it using plain HTTP GETs and POSTs, but that would have been cumbersome. So I used Mechanize to create a small API to access XPlanner. The API is outlined by the following code, which was written for XPlanner version 0.6.2. To save space I removed all error handling. (The current XPlanner version features a SOAP interface, so remote controlling it gets even simpler.)
class XplannerHttp

PLANNER = "#{HOST}/xplanner/do"

def initialize
@agent = WWW::Mechanize.new
@agent.redirect_ok = true
@agent.follow_meta_refresh = true

# Login to XPlanner web application.
def login(user, pass)
login_page = @agent.get("#{PLANNER}/login")
authenticate = login_page.form_with(:name => 'login/authenticate')
authenticate['userId'] = user
authenticate['password'] = pass
authenticate['remember'] = 'Y' # set cookie to remain logged in.

# Book for a task with _taskid_ (5 digits).
# _date_ is the date in "YYYY-MM-DD" format.
# _hours_ is the time in decimal hours in format "0,0".
def book_time(taskid, date, hours)
task_page = @agent.get("#{PLANNER}/view/task?oid=#{taskid}")

# open edit time
add_link = task_page.links.find do |l|
l.href =~ /\/xplanner\/do\/edit\/time\?/
edit_page = add_link.click

# add new times and submit
timelog = edit_page.form_with(:name => 'timelog')
c = timelog['rowcount'].to_i-1

timelog["reportDate[#{c}]"] = date
timelog["duration[#{c}]"] = hours.to_s
timelog["person1Id[#{c}]"] = '65071' # id of my XPlanner user
Once the API was in place, a simple script extracted the values from the spreadsheet (in fact from an FX input field) and booked it. I just used XPlanner ids as subprojects and copied the cumulated sums of my Excel into the input field.
bot = XplannerHttp.new
bot.login(USER, PASS)
text.split(/\n/).each do |line|
parts = line.scan(SUM_LINE).flatten
parts[1] = parts[1].sub(/,/, '.').to_f
bot.book_time(parts[2], parts[0], parts[1])
# => bot.book_time(65142, '2009-01-22', '1,5')
The second application was used by the HR department to monitor working and extra hours. This was a web application using frame sets and Java Script. Mechanize does not (yet?) support Java Script, so I had to look somewhere else. I started remote controlling my browser by OLE automation, which turned out to be too difficult (for me). Fortunately other people have done a great job creating Watir, which does exactly that. So here we go (again without any error handling):
class StimeIe

def initialize
@browser = Watir::Browser.new

def login(user, pass)

login_frame = @browser.frame(:index, 4)
login_frame.text_field(:name, 'Num').set(user)
login_frame.text_field(:name, 'Password').set(pass)
login_frame.button(:name, 'Done').click

# Book for a day with _date_ in format "DD.MM.YYYY".
# _from_ is the time of coming in "HH:MM" format.
# _to_ is the time of leaving in "HH:MM" format.
def book_time(date, from, to)
navigate_to 'Erfassung/Korrektur'
input_frame = @browser.frame(:index, 4)
if input_frame.text_field(:name, 'VonDatum').text != date
input_frame.text_field(:name, 'VonDatum').set(date)

# add new times and submit
input_frame.text_field(:name, 'VonZeit').set(from)
input_frame.text_field(:name, 'BisZeit').set(to)
input_frame.button(:id, 'Change').click
input_frame.button(:id, 'Done').click

# Logout and close the browser.
def close
navigate_to 'Abmelden'

def navigate_to(link_name)
nav_frame = @browser.frame(:index, 3)
nav_frame.link(:text, link_name).click
A little script would extract the first and last time of a day from the spreadsheet and call the bot:
bot = StimeIe.new
times = ...
times.keys.sort.each do |date|
from_until = times[date]
bot.book_time(date, from_until.from, from_until.until)
# => bot.book_time('09.03.2009', '09:00', '18:00')
A Nut to Crack
The third application was the hardest to "crack": A proprietary .NET application used by controlling. I spent (read wasted) some time reverse engineering server and database access. (.NET Reflector is a tool worth knowing. It is able to decompile .NET DLLs.) Then I started scripting the application with AutoIt. AutoIt is a freeware scripting language designed for automating Windows GUIs. Using win32ole AutoIt can be scripted with Ruby:
class Apollo

APOLLO_EXE = 'Some.exe'

CTID = '[CLASS:WindowsForms10.SysTreeView32.app.0.19c1610; INSTANCE:1]'

def initialize
@autoit = WIN32OLE.new('AutoItX3.Control')

# Open with local Windows credentials.
def login

# Wait for the exe to become active.

# Book for an _apo_ (5 digits and decimals).
# _text_ is the name of the sub-item.
# _date_ is the date in "DD.MM.YYYY" format.
# _hours_ is the time in full hours.
# _mins_ is the time in remaining minutes.
def book_time(apo, text, date, hours, mins)
# select the tree control
@autoit.ControlFocus(APOLLO_WIN_NAME, '', CTID)

# select the APO number

@autoit.Send('{RIGHT 5}')

# continue with a lot of boring code
# selecting controls and sending keystrokes.

def close
Velvet MiteMite
Recently I happened to use mite. It claims to be an "advanced, yet simple tool to help you get things done". Well that's true. It's easy to use and has only the most basic features needed for time accounting. More important there is an API for developers. Good. Even better there is an official Ruby library for interacting with the RESTful mite.api: mite-rb. Excellent.

No need to change my good old spreadsheet. Using a new class MiteBot instead of XplannerHttp and friends the driver script looked quite similar.
class MiteBot

# Mapping spreadsheet activities to mite project names.
:default => 'Main Product',
'Meeting' => 'Meeting',

def initialize
Mite.account = ACCOUNT # your mite. account

# Login to the mite web application with _key_
def login(key)
Mite.key = key

# Book a task in _category_ with detailed _comment_
# _date_ is the date in "DD.MM" format.
# _hours_ is the time in decimal hours in format "0,0".
def book_time(date, hours, comment, category='')

key = if category =~ /^.+$/ then category else :default end
proj_name = CATEGORIES[key]

# parse date
day, month = date.split(/\./).collect{ |i| i.to_i }.to_a
timestamp = Date.new(YEAR,month,day)

# parse hours
minutes = (hours.to_s.sub(',', '.').to_f * 60).to_i

# get project
proj = find_project_for(proj_name)

# create time entry
e = Mite::TimeEntry.new(:date_at => timestamp, :minutes => minutes,
:note => comment, :project_id => proj.id)

# add new times

# Find the project with _name_ and return it.
def find_project_for(name)
Mite::Project.all(:params => {:name => name}).first

# usage with data read from spreadsheet/FX input field
bot = MiteBot.new
# => bot.book_time('15.12', '2,25', 'Introduction of Radar', '')
So what is the point of this blog post besides giving you some ideas how to automate time accounting? I want you to stop moaning about it! Take the initiative. Do something about it. Trust me, developing little automation scripts is fun and rewarding on its own.

9 March 2010

Code Quality Assurance

Last week I had the opportunity to give an one hour presentation on code quality assurance as part of the lecture on software testing to students of the Fachhochschule Technikum Wien. By "code quality assurance" I meant principles and techniques used by software developers to test their software and keep it free of bugs.

I believe that the most important ingredient of code quality is the mind-set of the developer. So I started with some slides about the Zero-Defect Mindset and Software Craftsmanship. Then I did a live demo performing the Prime Factors Code Kata to show the basics of unit testing, Test-Driven Development and regression testing. This was the main part of the presentation.

Break  FreeAfter that I explained the principles of code coverage, continuous integration, static code analysis and code reviews to the students. I mixed the theory (slides) with hands-on examples on the newly created Java code using EclEmma, Hudson, PMD and ReviewClipse.

Doing the demo was fun and the whole presentation was a success. For the demo I tried to stick to Scott Hanselman's Tips for a Successful Technical Presentation, esp. font size (Lucida Console, 16pt). Here is my "BigFonty" checklist:
  • Create a new, clean user profile for presentation only.
  • Set icons to large and number of colours to maximum.
  • Remove all icons from the desktop and choose a plain desktop background. I like to minimise all windows if I get lost between them.
  • Disable any screen saver and turn off energy saving. Otherwise they will definitely activate at the most annoying moment.
  • Set the command shell font to Lucida Console 16 point, bold, green on black. Have the default shell point to your main demo directory.
  • Clean up the browser, remove unnecessary tool bars and symbols. Unfortunately, at least in Windows, new users always have tons of crap on the desktop and in the browser.
  • Set the default browser page to empty or your main demo web-site.
  • Set the font size in your browser to very large and enable override of font sizes in styles. This is done in some accessibility sub-menu.
  • Use the browser in full screen mode (F11). You need all the space available for the large text.
  • Set the main font in your IDE to Lucida Console 16. In Eclipse it's enough to change the Text Font (in the Basic category in the sub-menu Colours and Fonts in Appearance).
  • Turn on line numbering in the IDE for quick reference of single lines.
  • Maximise the IDE and use a full screen source window whenever possible. In Eclipse just press Ctrl-M to maximise a view.
  • Start all applications like IDE or any server before the presentation. They may take some time.
(Download slides or source of Prime Factors Code Kata.)

Update 20 April 2010

Student Feedback

Today I got the feedback evaluation from FH Technikum Wien. Several students mentioned my presentation as exciting and full of practical experience. :-) One called my presentation idiosyncratic - I don't mind, it definitely was. It's only weak point was that students were not able to study using the slides alone. Next time I will prepare some handouts with more information.Radio Podcast Days

Update 8 May 2010

German Podcast of Presentation

I finally managed to post-process the (German) audio stream of the talk and combine it with the slides. Watch the quality assurance podcast (in German). It's still missing the demos, but my explanations should give you a general idea what's going on.