3 July 2018

Using NATstyle from the commandline

Last year a new client contracted me to help them make their development process, their development environment and tooling "state of the art" (aka up do date). From the coding perspective that included - among other things - using a decent IDE, writing unit tests, having some Continuous Delivery pipeline in place and using static code analysis. I thought that it should not be too difficult, right? It was, but that is not the goal of this article. Today I want to describe the static analysis features and how to use it.

Earth Sapphire Progress Picture 30 july-2011NATURAL
The code base was NATURAL. NATURAL is an application development and deployment environment using a proprietary language maintained by Software AG. It was created in 1979. André describes it as Cobol's ugly, brain-damaged, BABBLING IN ALL-CAPS - but regrettably still healthy and strong - cousin.. ;-) Well, it is a procedural language structured using modules, subroutines and functions. It feels as old as it is. For example, module names are limited to eight (8!) characters and there is no way to structure the modules further. An enterprise application might contain 5.000 to 10.000 modules. To me NATURAL feels much like early Pascal: units (modules), subroutines and functions together with the eight characters DOS name limit. I really liked Pascal back then and I do not feel that bad about NATURAL. Probably also because I do not have to use it on a daily basis.

NaturalONE and NATstyle
NaturalONE is the Eclipse-based tool for NATURAL by Software AG. It looks pretty good, similar to what you would expect from Eclipse. It contains the usual features like Outline, Search, Debug and something called NATstyle. Now NATstyle - which probably on purpose sounds similar to the well known Checkstyle - is an utility to define and check the coding standard in your programs. It is used inside NaturalONE, see a NATstyle Demo by Software AG. (For more information refer to the Eclipse/NaturalONE help topic Checking Natural Code with NATstyle.)

Invoking NATstyle from outside NaturalONE
I like static code analysis and consider it a mandatory component of every delivery pipeline. As I said above, I wanted to have some static code analysis and was wondering if I would be able to run NATstyle in the pipeline? I did not find any information on the topic and was forced to experiment. I used NaturalONE 8.3.5.0.242 CE (November 2016) and figured out several ways, which were hardly documented, and might be subject to change. Likely there are other options available in newer versions of NaturalONE and NATstyle.

Invoking NATstyle from command line
NATstyle is just an Eclipse plugin inside NaturalONE. In my edition it is the folder C:\Natural-CE\​Designer\​eclipse\​plugins\​com.​softwareag.​naturalone.​natural.​natstyle_8.3.5.0000-0242. With the proper class path it is possible to invoke NATstyle's main method, which prints help on its usage:
Usage: com.softwareag.naturalone.natural.natstyle.NATstyle [-options]

where options include:
  -projectpath <directory> Specify where to find the Natural project.
  -rootfolder              Library root folder support enabled.
  -c <file>                Specify the configuration file.
  -o <file>                Specify the output file.
  -sourcefiles <srcList>   Specify list of source files to be loaded.
                           separated with ;
  -libraries <libList>     Specify list of libraries to be loaded.
                           separated with ;
  -exclude <libList>       Specify a list of libraries to exclude.
                           separated with ;
  -p <directory>           Specify where to find additional packages.
  -help                    Display command line options and exit.

Make sure the following classes can be found in your class path:

com.softwareag.naturalone.natural.auxiliary
com.softwareag.naturalone.natural.common
com.softwareag.naturalone.natural.parser
Nice, that looks like the developers from Software AG prepared NATstyle to be called stand-alone in my pipeline. +1. All the necessary classes can be found in the following plugins of Eclipse/NaturalONE:
  • Folder com.softwareag.naturalone.natural.natstyle_8.3.5.0000-0242
  • Jar com.softwareag.naturalone.natural.auxiliary_*.jar
  • Folder com.softwareag.naturalone.natural.common_8.3.5.0000-0242
  • Jar com.softwareag.naturalone.natural.parser_*.jar
  • Jar org.eclipse.equinox.common_*.jar
These are all bundles defined by Eclipse/OSGi. The list of dependencies of these bundles also contains the following Jars
  • org.eclipse.swt.win32.*.jar
  • org.eclipse.ui.console_*.jar
which (in my experience) are not needed to use NATstyle. NATstyle does not use any other OSGi features and we can set the needed class path by hand. Here is an example how to do that in the Windows shell when NaturalONE is installed:
set N1=C:\Natural-CE\Designer\eclipse\plugins
set CLASSPATH=^
%N1%\com.softwareag.naturalone.natural.natstyle_8.3.5.0000-0242;^
%N1%\com.softwareag.naturalone.natural.auxiliary_8.3.5.0000-0242.jar;^
%N1%\com.softwareag.naturalone.natural.common_8.3.5.0000-0242;^
%N1%\com.softwareag.naturalone.natural.parser_8.3.5.0000-0242.jar;^
%N1%\org.eclipse.equinox.common_3.6.200.v20130402-1505.jar

java com.softwareag.naturalone.natural.natstyle.NATstyle %*
See run_natstyle for the script I used to run NATstyle directly. Copying the needed folders and Jars to another machine works well. I recommend to create a Jar from the folders before copying them around. create_jar how to do that. Make sure not to include META-INF\*.RSA or META-INF\*.SF into the new Jars because the checksums do not match. copy_jars does the actual copying into the lib folder.

Invoking NATstyle from Ant
NaturalONE supports Ant for some automation tasks. There is no specific NATstyle Ant task, but calling it from Ant is straight forward. If the path <path id="natstyle.classpath"> is set up to contain all the Folders and Jars, NATstyle is executed via Ant's java task:
<java taskname="natstyle"
      classname="com.softwareag.naturalone.natural.natstyle.NATstyle"
      dir="${basedir}" fork="true" maxmemory="128m"
      failonerror="true"
      classpathref="natstyle.classpath">
  <arg value="-projectpath" />
  <arg value="../NatUnit/NatUnit_L4N" />
  ...
</java>
A new JVM needs to be forked because NATstyle calls System.exit() at the end. All parameters are the same as for the command-line invocation and are passed in via the <arg /> element. See ant_NatStyle.xml for the complete Ant script.

Reporting
NATstyle writes an XML report of all files if worked and found rule violations. The structure is
<NATstyle>
  <file type='...' location='...'>
    <error severity='...' message='...' />
    ...
  </file>
  ...
</NATstyle>
Inside the folder of NATstyle (i.e. com.softwareag.naturalone.natural.natstyle_8.3.5.0000-0242) there is a subfolder NATstyle. It contains sample files. Using the provided NATstyleSimple.xsl the report XML (e.g. NATstyleResult.xml) can be transformed into a human-readable format (e.g. NATstyleSimple.html). When using NATstyle stand-alone, you might want to copy this folder as well. XSLT transformation task is part of Ant and converts the XML to HTML.
<xslt basedir="${basedir}"
      destdir="${basedir}/report"
      style="${basedir}/NATstyle/NATstyleSimple.xsl">
  <include name="NATstyleResult_*.xml" />
</xslt>
See ant_NatStyleResultToHtml.xml for the complete Ant build script to convert the NATstyle result XML into a readable HTML report. Using your own stylesheet (.xsl) allows you to customize the report. See how to convert the report into more complex formats.

Next time I will show you how to write your own NATstyle rules.

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